Did I find the right examples for you? yes no Crawl my project Python Jobs

All Samples(6) | Call(4) | Derive(0) | Import(2)

Use Pollard's p-1 method to try to extract a nontrivial factor of ``n``. Either a divisor (perhaps composite) or ``None`` is returned. The value of ``a`` is the base that is used in the test gcd(a**M - 1, n). The default is 2. If ``retries`` > 0 then if no factor is found after the first attempt, a new ``a`` will be generated randomly (using the ``seed``) and the process repeated. Note: the value of M is lcm(1..B) = reduce(ilcm, range(2, B + 1)). (more...)

def pollard_pm1(n, B=10, a=2, retries=0, seed=1234): """ Use Pollard's p-1 method to try to extract a nontrivial factor of ``n``. Either a divisor (perhaps composite) or ``None`` is returned. The value of ``a`` is the base that is used in the test gcd(a**M - 1, n). The default is 2. If ``retries`` > 0 then if no factor is found after the first attempt, a new ``a`` will be generated randomly (using the ``seed``) and the process repeated. Note: the value of M is lcm(1..B) = reduce(ilcm, range(2, B + 1)). A search is made for factors next to even numbers having a power smoothness less than ``B``. Choosing a larger B increases the likelihood of finding a larger factor but takes longer. Whether a factor of n is found or not depends on ``a`` and the power smoothness of the even mumber just less than the factor p (hence the name p - 1). Although some discussion of what constitutes a good ``a`` some descriptions are hard to interpret. At the modular.math site referenced below it is stated that if gcd(a**M - 1, n) = N then a**M % q**r is 1 for every prime power divisor of N. But consider the following: >>> from sympy.ntheory.factor_ import smoothness_p, pollard_pm1 >>> n=257*1009 >>> smoothness_p(n) (-1, [(257, (1, 2, 256)), (1009, (1, 7, 16))]) So we should (and can) find a root with B=16: >>> pollard_pm1(n, B=16, a=3) 1009 If we attempt to increase B to 256 we find that it doesn't work: >>> pollard_pm1(n, B=256) >>> But if the value of ``a`` is changed we find that only multiples of 257 work, e.g.: >>> pollard_pm1(n, B=256, a=257) 1009 Checking different ``a`` values shows that all the ones that didn't work had a gcd value not equal to ``n`` but equal to one of the factors: >>> from sympy.core.numbers import ilcm, igcd >>> from sympy import factorint, Pow >>> M = 1 >>> for i in range(2, 256): ... M = ilcm(M, i) ... >>> set([igcd(pow(a, M, n) - 1, n) for a in range(2, 256) if ... igcd(pow(a, M, n) - 1, n) != n]) set([1009]) But does aM % d for every divisor of n give 1? >>> aM = pow(255, M, n) >>> [(d, aM%Pow(*d.args)) for d in factorint(n, visual=True).args] [(257**1, 1), (1009**1, 1)] No, only one of them. So perhaps the principle is that a root will be found for a given value of B provided that: 1) the power smoothness of the p - 1 value next to the root does not exceed B 2) a**M % p != 1 for any of the divisors of n. By trying more than one ``a`` it is possible that one of them will yield a factor. Examples ======== With the default smoothness bound, this number can't be cracked: >>> from sympy.ntheory import pollard_pm1, primefactors >>> pollard_pm1(21477639576571) Increasing the smoothness bound helps: >>> pollard_pm1(21477639576571, B=2000) 4410317 Looking at the smoothness of the factors of this number we find: >>> from sympy.utilities import flatten >>> from sympy.ntheory.factor_ import smoothness_p, factorint >>> print(smoothness_p(21477639576571, visual=1)) p**i=4410317**1 has p-1 B=1787, B-pow=1787 p**i=4869863**1 has p-1 B=2434931, B-pow=2434931 The B and B-pow are the same for the p - 1 factorizations of the divisors because those factorizations had a very large prime factor: >>> factorint(4410317 - 1) {2: 2, 617: 1, 1787: 1} >>> factorint(4869863-1) {2: 1, 2434931: 1} Note that until B reaches the B-pow value of 1787, the number is not cracked; >>> pollard_pm1(21477639576571, B=1786) >>> pollard_pm1(21477639576571, B=1787) 4410317 The B value has to do with the factors of the number next to the divisor, not the divisors themselves. A worst case scenario is that the number next to the factor p has a large prime divisisor or is a perfect power. If these conditions apply then the power-smoothness will be about p/2 or p. The more realistic is that there will be a large prime factor next to p requiring a B value on the order of p/2. Although primes may have been searched for up to this level, the p/2 is a factor of p - 1, something that we don't know. The modular.math reference below states that 15% of numbers in the range of 10**15 to 15**15 + 10**4 are 10**6 power smooth so a B of 10**6 will fail 85% of the time in that range. From 10**8 to 10**8 + 10**3 the percentages are nearly reversed...but in that range the simple trial division is quite fast. References ========== - Richard Crandall & Carl Pomerance (2005), "Prime Numbers: A Computational Perspective", Springer, 2nd edition, 236-238 - http://modular.math.washington.edu/edu/2007/spring/ent/ent-html/node81.html - http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~yuvalf/Factorization.pdf """ n = int(n) if n < 4 or B < 3: raise ValueError('pollard_pm1 should receive n > 3 and B > 2') prng = random.Random(seed + B) # computing a**lcm(1,2,3,..B) % n for B > 2 # it looks weird, but it's right: primes run [2, B] # and the answer's not right until the loop is done. for i in range(retries + 1): aM = a for p in sieve.primerange(2, B + 1): e = int(math.log(B, p)) aM = pow(aM, pow(p, e), n) g = igcd(aM - 1, n) if 1 < g < n: return int(g) # get a new a: # since the exponent, lcm(1..B), is even, if we allow 'a' to be 'n-1' # then (n - 1)**even % n will be 1 which will give a g of 0 and 1 will # give a zero, too, so we set the range as [2, n-2]. Some references # say 'a' should be coprime to n, but either will detect factors. a = prng.randint(2, n - 2)

**sympy**(Download)

from sympy.core.compatibility import long from sympy.ntheory import isprime, n_order, is_primitive_root, \ is_quad_residue, legendre_symbol, jacobi_symbol, npartitions, totient, \ factorint, primefactors, divisors, randprime, nextprime, prevprime, \

raises(ValueError, lambda: pollard_rho(4)) raises(ValueError, lambda: pollard_pm1(3)) raises(ValueError, lambda: pollard_pm1(10, B=2)) # verbose coverage

src/s/y/sympy-HEAD/sympy/ntheory/tests/test_ntheory.py

**sympy**(Download)

from sympy.core.compatibility import long from sympy.ntheory import isprime, n_order, is_primitive_root, \ is_quad_residue, legendre_symbol, jacobi_symbol, npartitions, totient, \ factorint, primefactors, divisors, randprime, nextprime, prevprime, \

raises(ValueError, lambda: pollard_rho(4)) raises(ValueError, lambda: pollard_pm1(3)) raises(ValueError, lambda: pollard_pm1(10, B=2)) # verbose coverage