##
## Biskit, a toolkit for the manipulation of macromolecular structures
## Copyright (C) 2004-2012 Raik Gruenberg & Johan Leckner
##
## This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
## modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
## published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the
## License, or any later version.
##
## This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
## but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
## MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
## General Public License for more details.
##
## You find a copy of the GNU General Public License in the file
## license.txt along with this program; if not, write to the Free
## Software Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
##
##
## last $Author: graik $
## last $Date: 2012-02-24 16:07:38 -0500 (Fri, 24 Feb 2012) $
## $Revision: 1093 $
 
"""
Class for calls to external programs.
"""
 
import tempfile, os, time, subprocess
 
import Biskit.tools as t
import Biskit.settings as s
from Biskit.LogFile import StdLog
from Biskit.Errors import BiskitError
from Biskit.ExeConfigCache import ExeConfigCache
import Biskit as B
 
class RunError( BiskitError ):
    pass
 
class TemplateError( BiskitError ):
    pass
 
class Executor:
    """
    All calls of external programs should be done via this class or subclasses.
 
    Executor gets the necessary information about a program (binary,
    environment variables, etc) from ExeConfigCache, creates an input file
    or pipe from a template (if available) or an existing file, wrapps the
    program call into ssh and nice (if necessary), spawns an external process
    via subprocess.Popen, communicates the input file or string, waits for
    completion and collects the output file or string, and cleans up
    temporary files.
 
    There are two ways of using Executor
    ====================================
 
      1. (recommended) Create a subclass of Executor for a certain program
          call. Methods to override would be:
 
           - __init__  ... to set your own default values
                           (call parent __init__!)
           - prepare   ... called BEFORE program execution
           - finish    ... called AFTER successful program execution
           - isfailed  ... to detect the success status after program execution
           - fail      ... called if execution fails
           - cleanup   ... called AFTER everything else
                           (call parent cleanup!)
 
          Additionally, you should provide a simple program configuration file
          in biskit/Biskit/data/defaults/. See L{Biskit.ExeConfig} for
          details and examples!
 
      2.  Use Executor directly.
          An example is given in the __main__ section of this module.
          You first have to create an Executor instance with all the
          parameters, then call its run() method and collect the result.
 
          In the most simple cases this can be combined into one line:
 
          >>> out, error, returncode = Executor('ls', strict=0).run()
 
          strict=0 means, ExeConfig does not insist on an existing exe_ls.dat
          configuration file and instead looks for a program called 'ls' in the 
          search path.
 
 
    Templates
    =========
      Templates are files or strings that contain place holders like,
      for example::
 
          file_in=%(f_in)s
          file_out=%(f_out)s      
 
      At run time, Executor will create an input file or pipe from the
      template by replacing all place holders with values from its own
      fields. Let's assume, the above example is put into a file 'in.template'.
 
      >>> x = Executor( 'ls', template='in.template', f_in='in.dat')
 
      ... will then pass the following input to the ls program::
 
          file_in=in.dat
          file_out=/tmp/tmp1HYOvO
 
      However, the following input template will raise an error::
 
          file_in=%(f_in)s
          seed=%(seed)i
 
      ...because Executor doesn't have a 'seed' field. You could provide
      one by overwriting Executor.__init__. Alternatively, you can
      provide seed as a keyword to the original Executor.__init__:
 
      >>> x = Executor('ls', template='in.template',f_in='in.dat', seed=1.5)
 
      This works because Executor.__init__ puts all unknown key=value pairs
      into the object's name space and passes them on to the template.
 
 
    Communicating Input
    ===================
 
    Programs often expect scripts, commands or additional parameters
    from StdIn or from input files. Executor tries to support many
    scenarios -- which one is chosen mainly depends on the
    L{ExeConfig} `pipes` setting in exe_<program>.dat and on the
    `template` parameter given to Executor.__init__.  (Note: Executor
    loads the ExeConfig instance for the given program into its
    `self.exe` field.)
 
    Here is an overview over the different scenarios and how to
    activate them:
 
      1. B{ no input (default behaviour)}
 
        The program only needs command line parameters
 
        Condition:
 
          - template == None
 
      2. B{ input pipe from STDIN
        (== ``myprogram | 'some input string'``) }
 
        Condition:
 
          - exe.pipes == 1 / True
          - template != None ((or f_in points to existing file))
 
        Setup:
 
             1. `template` points to an existing file:
 
                 Executor reads the template file, completes it in
                 memory, and pushes it directly to the program.
 
             2. `template` points to string that doesn't look like a file name:
 
                 Executor completes the string in memory (using
                 `self.template % self.__dict__`) and pushes it
                 directly to the program. This is the fastest option
                 as it avoids file access alltogether.
 
             3. `template` == None but f_in points to an *existing* file:
 
                  Executor will read this file and push it unmodified to
                  the program via StdIn. (kind of an exception, if used at
                  all, f_in usual points to a *non-existing* file that
                  will receive the completed input file.)
 
      3. B{ input from file
        (== ``myprogram < input_file``) }
 
        Condition:
 
            - exe.pipes == 0 / False
            - template != None
            - push_inp == 1 / True (default)
 
        Setup:
 
           1. `template` points to an existing file:
 
                 Executor reads the template file, completes it in
                 memory, saves the completed file to disc (creating or
                 overriding self.f_in), opens the file and passes the
                 file handle to the program (instead of STDIN).
 
           2. `template` points to string that doesn't look like a file name:
 
                 Same as 3.1, except that the template is not read
                 from disc but directly taken from memory (see 2.2).
 
      4. B{ input file passed as argument to the program
        (== ``myprogram input_file``) }
 
        Condition:
 
          - exe.pipes == 0 / False
 
        Here it is up to you to provide the correct program
        argument.
 
        Setup:
 
           1. Use template completion:
 
                 The best option would be to set an explicit file name
                 for `f_in` and include this file name into  `args`, Example::
 
                   exe = ExeConfigCache.get('myprogram')
                   assert not exe.pipes 
 
                   x = Executor( 'myprogram', args='input.in', f_in='input.in',
                             template='/somewhere/input.template', cwd='/tmp' )
 
                 Executor creates your input file on the fly which is then
                 passed as first argument.
 
           2. Without template completion:
 
                 Similar, just that you don't give a template::
 
                   x = Executor( 'myprogram', args='input.in', f_in='input.in',
                             cwd='/tmp' )
 
                 It would then be up to you to provide the correct
                 input file in `/tmp/input.in`. You could override the
                 L{prepare()} hook method for creating it.
 
        There are other ways of doing the same thing.
 
 
    Look at L{generateInp()} to see what is actually going on. 
 
 
    References
    ==========
 
      - See also L{Biskit.IcmCad} and L{Biskit.Xplorer} for examples of
         how to overwrite and use Executor.
 
      - See also L{Biskit.ExeConfig} for a description of program
         configuration.
    """
 
    def __init__( self, name, args='', template=None, f_in=None, f_out=None,
                  f_err=None, strict=1, catch_out=1, push_inp=1, catch_err=0,
                  node=None, nice=0, cwd=None, tempdir=None, log=None, debug=0,
                  verbose=None, validate=1, **kw ):
 
        """
        Create Executor. *name* must point to an existing program configuration
        unless *strict*=0. Executor will create a program input from
        the template and its own fields and put it into f_in. If f_in but
        no template is given, the unchanged f_in is used as input. If neither
        is given, the program is called without input. If a node is given,
        the process is wrapped in a ssh call. If *nice* != 0, the process
        is preceeded by nice. *cwd* specifies the working directory. By
        default, this setting is taken from the configuration file which
        defaults to the current working directory.
 
        @param name: program name (configured in .biskit/exe_name.dat)
        @type  name: str
        @param args: command line arguments
        @type  args: str
        @param template: template for input file -- this can be the template
                         itself or the path to a file containing it
                         (default: None)
        @type  template: str
        @param f_in: target for completed input file (default: None, discard)
        @type  f_in: str
        @param f_out: target file for program output (default: None, discard)
        @type  f_out: str
        @param f_err: target file for error messages (default: None, discard)
        @type  f_err: str
        @param strict: strict check of environment and configuration file
                       (default: 1)
        @type  strict: 1|0
        @param catch_out: catch output in file (f_out or temporary)
                          (default: 1)
        @type  catch_out: 1|0
        @param catch_err: catch errors in file (f_out or temporary)
                          (default: 1)
        @type  catch_err: 1|0
        @param push_inp: push input file to process via stdin ('< f_in') [1]
        @type  push_inp: 1|0
        @param node: host for calculation (None->no ssh) (default: None)
        @type  node: str
        @param nice: nice level (default: 0)
        @type  nice: int
        @param cwd: working directory, overwrites ExeConfig.cwd (default: None)
        @type  cwd: str
        @param tempdir: folder for temporary files, will be created if not
                        existing (default: None ... use system default)
                        if set to True: create a new tempdir within default 
        @type  tempdir: str | True
        @param log: execution log (None->STOUT) (default: None)
        @type  log: Biskit.LogFile
        @param debug: keep all temporary files (default: 0)
        @type  debug: 0|1
        @param verbose: print progress messages to log (default: log != STDOUT)
        @type  verbose: 0|1
        @param validate: validate binary and environment immedeatly (1=default)
                         or only before execution (0)
        @type validate: 1|0 
        @param kw: key=value pairs with values for template file or string
        @type  kw: key=value
 
        @raise ExeConfigError: if environment is not fit for running
                               the program
        """
        self.exe = ExeConfigCache.get( name, strict=strict )
        if validate:
            self.exe.validate()
 
        ## see prepare()
        self.keep_tempdir = True   ## set to False if tempdir created new
        self.tempdir = self.newtempfolder( tempdir ) ## repeat in child classes
 
        self.f_out = t.absfile( f_out )
        if not f_out and catch_out:
            self.f_out = tempfile.mktemp( '.out', name+'_', self.tempdir)
 
        self.f_err = t.absfile( f_err )
        if not f_err and catch_err:
            self.f_err = tempfile.mktemp( '.err', name+'_', self.tempdir)
 
        self.keep_out = f_out is not None
        self.keep_inp = f_in  is not None  #: do not clean up the input file
        self.catch_out = catch_out         #: capture STDOUT into file
        self.catch_err = catch_err         #: capture STDERR into file
 
        self.f_in = t.absfile( f_in )
        ## pre-define name of input file that will be generated later 
        if template and not f_in:
            self.f_in  = tempfile.mktemp('.inp', name+'_', self.tempdir)
 
        self.push_inp = push_inp
 
        self.args = args
        self.template = template
 
        self.node  = node ## or os.uname()[1]
        self.nice  = nice
        self.debug = debug
 
        self.cwd = cwd or self.exe.cwd
 
        #: Log object for own messages
        self.log = log or StdLog()
        self.verbose = verbose
        if self.verbose is None:
            self.verbose = (log is not None)
 
        ## these are set by self.run():
        self.runTime = 0    #: time needed for last run
        self.output = None  #: STDOUT returned by process
        self.error = None   #: STDERR returned by process
        self.returncode = None #: int status returned by process
        self.pid = None     #: process ID
 
        self.result = None  #: set by self.finish()
 
        self.initVersion = self.version()
 
        self.__dict__.update( kw )
 
 
    def version( self ):
        """Version of class (at creation).
        @return: version
        @rtype: str
        """       
        return 'Executor $Revision: 1093 $'
 
 
    def newtempfolder( self, tempdir=None ):
        """
        Create a new unique file name for a temporary folder or return the 
        system-wide existing tempfolder.
        @param tempdir: folder for temporary files, will be created if not
                        existing (default: None ... use system default)
                        if set to True: create a new tempdir within default 
        @type  tempdir: str | True
        """
        if tempdir is True:
            return tempfile.mktemp( '', 
                                    self.__class__.__name__.lower() + '_', 
                                    t.tempDir() )
        else:
            return tempdir or t.tempDir()
 
 
    def communicate( self, cmd, inp, bufsize=-1, executable=None,
                     stdin=None, stdout=None, stderr=None,
                     shell=0, env=None, cwd=None ):
        """
        Start and communicate with the new process. Called by execute().
        See subprocess.Popen() for a detailed description of the parameters!
        This method should work for pretty much any purpose but may fail for
        very long pipes (more than 100000 lines).
 
        @param inp: (for pipes) input sequence
        @type  inp: str
        @param cmd: command
        @type  cmd: str
        @param bufsize: see subprocess.Popen() (default: -1)
        @type  bufsize: int
        @param executable: see subprocess.Popen() (default: None)
        @type  executable: str
        @param stdin: subprocess.PIPE or file handle or None (default: None)
        @type  stdin: int|file|None
        @param stdout: subprocess.PIPE or file handle or None (default: None)
        @type  stdout: int|file|None
        @param stderr: subprocess.PIPE or file handle or None (default: None)
        @type  stderr: int|file|None
        @param shell: wrap process in shell; see subprocess.Popen()
                      (default: 0, use exe_*.dat configuration) 
        @type  shell: 1|0
        @param env: environment variables (default: None, use exe_*.dat config)
        @type  env: {str:str}
        @param cwd: working directory (default: None, means self.cwd)
        @type  cwd: str
 
        @return: output and error output
        @rtype: str, str
 
        @raise RunError: if OSError occurs during Popen or Popen.communicate
        """
        try:
            p = subprocess.Popen( cmd.split(),
                                  bufsize=bufsize, executable=executable,
                                  stdin=stdin, stdout=stdout, stderr=stderr,
                                  shell=shell or self.exe.shell,
                                  env=env or self.environment(), 
                                  cwd=cwd or self.cwd )
 
            self.pid = p.pid
 
            output, error = p.communicate( inp )
 
            self.returncode = p.returncode
 
        except OSError, e:
            raise RunError, \
                  "Couldn't run or communicate with external program: %r"\
                  % e.strerror
 
        return output, error
 
 
    def execute( self, inp=None ):
        """
        Run external command and block until it is finished.
        Called by L{ run() }.
 
        @param inp: input to be communicated via STDIN pipe (default: None)
        @type  inp: str
 
        @return: execution time in seconds
        @rtype: int
 
        @raise RunError: see communicate()
        """
        self.exe.validate() ##Check that binary and env variables are available
 
        start_time = time.time()
 
        cmd = self.command()
 
        shellexe = None
        if self.exe.shell and self.exe.shellexe:
            shellexe = self.exe.shellexe
 
        stdin = stdout = stderr = None
 
        if self.exe.pipes:
            stdin = subprocess.PIPE
            stdout= subprocess.PIPE
            stderr= subprocess.PIPE
        else:
            inp = None
            if self.f_in and self.push_inp:
                stdin = open( self.f_in )
            if self.f_out and self.catch_out:
                stdout= open( self.f_out, 'w' )
            if self.f_err and self.catch_err:    
                stderr= open( self.f_err, 'w' )
 
        if self.verbose:
            self.log.add('executing: %s' % cmd)
            self.log.add('in folder: %s' % self.cwd ) 
            self.log.add('input:  %r' % stdin )
            self.log.add('output: %r' % stdout )
            self.log.add('errors: %r' % stderr )
            self.log.add('wrapped: %r'% self.exe.shell )
            self.log.add('shell: %r'  % shellexe )
            self.log.add('environment: %r' % self.environment() )
            if self.exe.pipes and inp:
                self.log.add('%i byte of input pipe' % len(str(inp)))
 
        self.output, self.error = self.communicate( cmd, inp,
                            bufsize=-1, executable=shellexe, stdin=stdin,
                            stdout=stdout, stderr=stderr,
                            shell=self.exe.shell,
                            env=self.environment(), cwd=self.cwd )
 
        if self.exe.pipes and self.f_out:
            open( self.f_out, 'w').writelines( self.output )
        if not self.exe.pipes and self.catch_err:
            self.error = open( self.f_err, 'r' ).readlines()
 
        if self.verbose: self.log.add(".. finished.")
 
        return time.time() - start_time
 
 
    def run( self, inp_mirror=None ):
        """
        Run the callculation. This calls (in that order):
          - L{ prepare() },
          - L{ execute() },
          - L{ postProcess() },
          - L{ finish() } OR L{ fail() },
          - L{ cleanup() }
 
        @param inp_mirror: file name for formatted copy of inp file
                           (default: None) [not implemented]
        @type  inp_mirror: str
 
        @return: calculation result
        @rtype: any
        """
        try:
            self.prepare()
 
            self.inp  = self.generateInp()
 
            self.runTime = self.execute( inp=self.inp )
 
            self.postProcess()
 
        except MemoryError, why:
            try:
                self.fail()
            finally:
                self.cleanup()
            raise RunError, why
 
        try:
            if self.isFailed():
                self.fail()
            else:
                self.finish()
        finally:
            self.cleanup()
 
        return self.result
 
 
    def command( self ):
        """
        Compose command string from binary, arguments, nice, and node.
        Override (perhaps).
 
        @return: the command to execute
        @rtype: str
        """
        exe = t.absbinary( self.exe.bin )
 
        if self.args:
            exe = exe + ' ' + self.args
 
        str_nice = str_ssh = ''
 
        if self.nice != 0:
            str_nice = "%s -%i" % (s.nice_bin, self.nice)
 
        if self.node is not None:
            str_ssh  = "%s %s"  % (s.ssh_bin, self.node )
 
        cmd = "%s %s %s" % (str_ssh, str_nice, exe )
        cmd = cmd.strip()
 
        return cmd
 
 
    def environment( self ):
        """
        Setup the environment for the process. Override if needed.
 
        @return: environment dictionary
        @rtype: dict OR None
        """
        if not self.exe.replaceEnv:
            return None
 
        return self.exe.environment()
 
 
    def prepare( self ):
        """
        Called before running external program, override!
        Call at the beginning of child method to create temporary folder.
        """
        if not os.path.exists( self.tempdir):
            if self.verbose:
                self.log.writeln('\ncreating temporary directory '+self.tempdir)
            os.mkdir( self.tempdir )
            self.keep_tempdir = False
 
 
    def postProcess( self ):
        """
        called directly after running the external program, override!
        """
        pass
 
 
    def cleanup( self ):
        """
        Clean up after external program has finished (failed or not).
        Note: a temporary folder, if it has been created, is only deleted if
        it empty.
        Override, but call in (preferably at the end of) child method!
        """
        if not self.keep_out and not self.debug and self.f_out:
            t.tryRemove( self.f_out )
 
        if not self.keep_inp and not self.debug:
            t.tryRemove( self.f_in )
 
        if self.f_err and not self.debug:
            t.tryRemove( self.f_err )
 
        if not self.keep_tempdir and not self.debug and self.verbose:
            if os.listdir( self.tempdir ):  
                self.log.add('Warning: Removing non-empty temporary folder %s'%\
                             self.tempdir )
            self.log.writeln( 'Removing temporary folder %s' % self.tempdir )
            t.tryRemove( self.tempdir, tree=True )
 
 
    def fail( self ):
        """
        Called if external program failed, override! 
        """
        B.EHandler.warning(\
            'Execution failed. (Override Executor.fail() to handle this!)')
 
 
    def finish( self ):
        """
        Called if external program finished successfully, override!
        """
        self.result = self.output, self.error, self.returncode
 
 
    def isFailed( self ):
        """
        Detect whether external program failed, override!
        """
        return 0
 
 
    def fillTemplate( self ):
        """
        Create complete input string from template with place holders.
 
        @return: input
        @rtype: str
 
        @raise TemplateError: if unknown option/place holder in template file
        """
        inp = self.template
 
        try:
            if os.path.isfile( inp ):
                inp = open( inp, 'r' ).read()
            return inp % self.__dict__
 
        except KeyError, why:
            s =  "Unknown option/place holder in template file."
            s += "\n  template file: " + str( self.template )
            s += "\n  Template asked for a option called " + str( why[0] )
            raise TemplateError, s
 
 
    def convertInput( self, inp):
        """
        Convert the input to a format used by the selected execution method.
 
        @param inp: path to existing input file or string with input
        @type  inp: str
 
        @return: input string if self.exe.pipes; file name otherwise
        @rtype: str
        """
        if self.exe.pipes:
 
            ## convert file to string
            if not inp and os.path.exists( self.f_in or '' ):
                return open( self.f_in, 'r' ).read()
            ## or return string unchanged
            return inp
 
        ## no pipes and no input string
        if inp is None:
 
            return inp
 
        ## else put input string into file
        assert self.f_in
 
        f = open( self.f_in, 'w')
        f.write(inp)
        f.close()
        return self.f_in
 
 
    def generateInp(self):
        """
        Prepare the program input (file or string) from a template (if
        any, file or string).
 
        @return: input file name OR (if pipes=1) content of input file OR None
        @rtype: str
 
        @raise TemplateError: if error while creating template file
        """
        try:
            inp = None
 
            if self.template:
                inp = self.fillTemplate()
 
            return self.convertInput( inp )
 
        except IOError, why:
            s =  "Error while creating input file from template."
            s += "\n  template file: " + str( self.template )
            s += "\n  why: " + str( why )
            s += "\n  Error:\n  " + t.lastError()
            raise TemplateError, s
 
 
#############
##  TESTING        
#############
import Biskit.test as BT
 
class Test(BT.BiskitTest):
    """Executor test"""
 
    TAGS = [ BT.EXE ]
 
    def prepare(self):
        import tempfile
        self.fout = tempfile.mktemp('_testexecutor.out')
 
    def cleanUp(self):
        t.tryRemove(self.fout)
 
    def test_Executor( self ):
        """Executor test (run emacs ~/.biskit/settings.cfg)"""
        ExeConfigCache.reset()
 
        self.x = ExeConfigCache.get( 'emacs', strict=0 )
        self.x.pipes = 1
 
        args = '.biskit/settings.cfg'
        if not self.local:
            args = '-kill ' + args
 
        self.e = Executor( 'emacs', args=args, strict=0,
                           f_in=None,
                           f_out=self.fout,
                           verbose=self.local, cwd=t.absfile('~'),
                           tempdir=True,
                           debug=self.debug )
 
        self.r = self.e.run()
 
        if self.local:
            print 'Emacs was running for %.2f seconds'%self.e.runTime
 
        self.assert_( self.e.pid != None )
 
    def test_tempfiles(self):
        """Executor test temporary file creation and removal"""
        self.e = Executor( 'emacs', args='-kill', f_out=self.fout, 
                           verbose=self.local, tempdir=True,
                           debug=False )
        self.e.prepare()
        self.assert_( os.path.exists( self.e.tempdir ), 
                      'cannot find temp. folder' )
        self.e.cleanup()
        self.assert_( not os.path.exists( self.e.tempdir ),
                      'tempfolder has not been removed.')
 
 
 
if __name__ == '__main__':
 
    BT.localTest()