from Errors import CompileError, error
import ExprNodes
from ExprNodes import IntNode, NameNode, AttributeNode
import Options
from Code import UtilityCode, TempitaUtilityCode
from UtilityCode import CythonUtilityCode
import Buffer
import PyrexTypes
import ModuleNode
START_ERR = "Start must not be given."
STOP_ERR = "Axis specification only allowed in the 'step' slot."
STEP_ERR = "Step must be omitted, 1, or a valid specifier."
BOTH_CF_ERR = "Cannot specify an array that is both C and Fortran contiguous."
INVALID_ERR = "Invalid axis specification."
NOT_CIMPORTED_ERR = "Variable was not cimported from cython.view"
EXPR_ERR = "no expressions allowed in axis spec, only names and literals."
CF_ERR = "Invalid axis specification for a C/Fortran contiguous array."
ERR_UNINITIALIZED = ("Cannot check if memoryview %s is initialized without the "
                     "GIL, consider using initializedcheck(False)")
def err_if_nogil_initialized_check(pos, env, name='variable'):
    "This raises an exception at runtime now"
    #if env.nogil and env.directives['initializedcheck']:
        #error(pos, ERR_UNINITIALIZED % name)
def concat_flags(*flags):
    return "(%s)" % "|".join(flags)
format_flag = "PyBUF_FORMAT"
memview_c_contiguous = "(PyBUF_C_CONTIGUOUS | PyBUF_FORMAT | PyBUF_WRITABLE)"
memview_f_contiguous = "(PyBUF_F_CONTIGUOUS | PyBUF_FORMAT | PyBUF_WRITABLE)"
memview_any_contiguous = "(PyBUF_ANY_CONTIGUOUS | PyBUF_FORMAT | PyBUF_WRITABLE)"
memview_full_access = "PyBUF_FULL"
#memview_strided_access = "PyBUF_STRIDED"
memview_strided_access = "PyBUF_RECORDS"
_spec_to_const = {
        'direct' : MEMVIEW_DIRECT,
        'ptr'    : MEMVIEW_PTR,
        'full'   : MEMVIEW_FULL,
        'contig' : MEMVIEW_CONTIG,
        'strided': MEMVIEW_STRIDED,
        'follow' : MEMVIEW_FOLLOW,
_spec_to_abbrev = {
    'direct'  : 'd',
    'ptr'     : 'p',
    'full'    : 'f',
    'contig'  : 'c',
    'strided' : 's',
    'follow'  : '_',
memslice_entry_init = "{ 0, 0, { 0 }, { 0 }, { 0 } }"
memview_name = u'memoryview'
memview_typeptr_cname = '__pyx_memoryview_type'
memview_objstruct_cname = '__pyx_memoryview_obj'
memviewslice_cname = u'__Pyx_memviewslice'
def put_init_entry(mv_cname, code):
    code.putln(" = NULL;" % mv_cname)
    code.putln("%s.memview = NULL;" % mv_cname)
def mangle_dtype_name(dtype):
    # a dumb wrapper for now; move Buffer.mangle_dtype_name in here later?
    import Buffer
    return Buffer.mangle_dtype_name(dtype)
#def axes_to_str(axes):
#    return "".join([access[0].upper()+packing[0] for (access, packing) in axes])
def put_acquire_memoryviewslice(lhs_cname, lhs_type, lhs_pos, rhs, code,
                                have_gil=False, first_assignment=True):
    "We can avoid decreffing the lhs if we know it is the first assignment"
    assert rhs.type.is_memoryviewslice
    pretty_rhs = rhs.result_in_temp() or rhs.is_simple()
    if pretty_rhs:
        rhstmp = rhs.result()
        rhstmp = code.funcstate.allocate_temp(lhs_type, manage_ref=False)
        code.putln("%s = %s;" % (rhstmp, rhs.result_as(lhs_type)))
    # Allow uninitialized assignment
    #code.putln(code.put_error_if_unbound(lhs_pos, rhs.entry))
    put_assign_to_memviewslice(lhs_cname, rhs, rhstmp, lhs_type, code,
                               have_gil=have_gil, first_assignment=first_assignment)
    if not pretty_rhs:
def put_assign_to_memviewslice(lhs_cname, rhs, rhs_cname, memviewslicetype, code,
                               have_gil=False, first_assignment=False):
    if not first_assignment:
        code.put_xdecref_memoryviewslice(lhs_cname, have_gil=have_gil)
    if not rhs.result_in_temp():
    code.putln("%s = %s;" % (lhs_cname, rhs_cname))
def get_buf_flags(specs):
    is_c_contig, is_f_contig = is_cf_contig(specs)
    if is_c_contig:
        return memview_c_contiguous
    elif is_f_contig:
        return memview_f_contiguous
    access, packing = zip(*specs)
    if 'full' in access or 'ptr' in access:
        return memview_full_access
        return memview_strided_access
def insert_newaxes(memoryviewtype, n):
    axes = [('direct', 'strided')] * n
    return PyrexTypes.MemoryViewSliceType(memoryviewtype.dtype, axes)
def broadcast_types(src, dst):
    n = abs(src.ndim - dst.ndim)
    if src.ndim < dst.ndim:
        return insert_newaxes(src, n), dst
        return src, insert_newaxes(dst, n)
def src_conforms_to_dst(src, dst, broadcast=False):
    returns True if src conforms to dst, False otherwise.
    If conformable, the types are the same, the ndims are equal, and each axis spec is conformable.
    Any packing/access spec is conformable to itself.
    'direct' and 'ptr' are conformable to 'full'.
    'contig' and 'follow' are conformable to 'strided'.
    Any other combo is not conformable.
    if src.dtype != dst.dtype:
        return False
    if src.ndim != dst.ndim:
        if broadcast:
            src, dst = broadcast_types(src, dst)
            return False
    for src_spec, dst_spec in zip(src.axes, dst.axes):
        src_access, src_packing = src_spec
        dst_access, dst_packing = dst_spec
        if src_access != dst_access and dst_access != 'full':
            return False
        if src_packing != dst_packing and dst_packing != 'strided':
            return False
    return True
def valid_memslice_dtype(dtype, i=0):
    Return whether type dtype can be used as the base type of a
    memoryview slice.
    We support structs, numeric types and objects
    if dtype.is_complex and dtype.real_type.is_int:
        return False
    if dtype is PyrexTypes.c_bint_type:
        return False
    if dtype.is_struct and dtype.kind == 'struct':
        for member in dtype.scope.var_entries:
            if not valid_memslice_dtype(member.type):
                return False
        return True
    return (
        dtype.is_error or
        # Pointers are not valid (yet)
        # (dtype.is_ptr and valid_memslice_dtype(dtype.base_type)) or
        (dtype.is_array and i < 8 and
         valid_memslice_dtype(dtype.base_type, i + 1)) or
        dtype.is_numeric or
        dtype.is_pyobject or
        dtype.is_fused or # accept this as it will be replaced by specializations later
        (dtype.is_typedef and valid_memslice_dtype(dtype.typedef_base_type))
def validate_memslice_dtype(pos, dtype):
    if not valid_memslice_dtype(dtype):
        error(pos, "Invalid base type for memoryview slice: %s" % dtype)
class MemoryViewSliceBufferEntry(Buffer.BufferEntry):
    def __init__(self, entry):
        self.entry = entry
        self.type = entry.type
        self.cname = entry.cname
        self.buf_ptr = "" % self.cname
        dtype = self.entry.type.dtype
        dtype = PyrexTypes.CPtrType(dtype)
        self.buf_ptr_type = dtype
    def get_buf_suboffsetvars(self):
        return self._for_all_ndim("%s.suboffsets[%d]")
    def get_buf_stridevars(self):
        return self._for_all_ndim("%s.strides[%d]")
    def get_buf_shapevars(self):
        return self._for_all_ndim("%s.shape[%d]")
    def generate_buffer_lookup_code(self, code, index_cnames):
        axes = [(dim, index_cnames[dim], access, packing)
                    for dim, (access, packing) in enumerate(self.type.axes)]
        return self._generate_buffer_lookup_code(code, axes)
    def _generate_buffer_lookup_code(self, code, axes, cast_result=True):
        bufp = self.buf_ptr
        type_decl = self.type.dtype.declaration_code("")
        for dim, index, access, packing in axes:
            shape = "%s.shape[%d]" % (self.cname, dim)
            stride = "%s.strides[%d]" % (self.cname, dim)
            suboffset = "%s.suboffsets[%d]" % (self.cname, dim)
            flag = get_memoryview_flag(access, packing)
            if flag in ("generic", "generic_contiguous"):
                # Note: we cannot do cast tricks to avoid stride multiplication
                #       for generic_contiguous, as we may have to do (dtype *)
                #       or (dtype **) arithmetic, we won't know which unless
                #       we check suboffsets
                bufp = ('__pyx_memviewslice_index_full(%s, %s, %s, %s)' %
                                            (bufp, index, stride, suboffset))
            elif flag == "indirect":
                bufp = "(%s + %s * %s)" % (bufp, index, stride)
                bufp = ("(*((char **) %s) + %s)" % (bufp, suboffset))
            elif flag == "indirect_contiguous":
                # Note: we do char ** arithmetic
                bufp = "(*((char **) %s + %s) + %s)" % (bufp, index, suboffset)
            elif flag == "strided":
                bufp = "(%s + %s * %s)" % (bufp, index, stride)
                assert flag == 'contiguous', flag
                bufp = '((char *) (((%s *) %s) + %s))' % (type_decl, bufp, index)
            bufp = '( /* dim=%d */ %s )' % (dim, bufp)
        if cast_result:
            return "((%s *) %s)" % (type_decl, bufp)
        return bufp
    def generate_buffer_slice_code(self, code, indices, dst, have_gil,
                                   have_slices, directives):
        Slice a memoryviewslice.
        indices     - list of index nodes. If not a SliceNode, or NoneNode,
                      then it must be coercible to Py_ssize_t
        Simply call __pyx_memoryview_slice_memviewslice with the right
        new_ndim = 0
        src = self.cname
        def load_slice_util(name, dict):
            proto, impl = TempitaUtilityCode.load_as_string(
                        name, "MemoryView_C.c", context=dict)
            return impl
        all_dimensions_direct = True
        for access, packing in self.type.axes:
            if access != 'direct':
                all_dimensions_direct = False
        no_suboffset_dim = all_dimensions_direct and not have_slices
        if not no_suboffset_dim:
            suboffset_dim = code.funcstate.allocate_temp(
                             PyrexTypes.c_int_type, False)
            code.putln("%s = -1;" % suboffset_dim)
        code.putln("%(dst) = %(src);" % locals())
        code.putln("%(dst)s.memview = %(src)s.memview;" % locals())
        dim = -1
        for index in indices:
            error_goto = code.error_goto(index.pos)
            if not index.is_none:
                dim += 1
                access, packing = self.type.axes[dim]
            if isinstance(index, ExprNodes.SliceNode):
                # slice, unspecified dimension, or part of ellipsis
                d = locals()
                for s in "start stop step".split():
                    idx = getattr(index, s)
                    have_idx = d['have_' + s] = not idx.is_none
                    if have_idx:
                        d[s] = idx.result()
                        d[s] = "0"
                if (not d['have_start'] and
                    not d['have_stop'] and
                    not d['have_step']):
                    # full slice (:), simply copy over the extent, stride
                    # and suboffset. Also update suboffset_dim if needed
                    d['access'] = access
                    code.put(load_slice_util("SimpleSlice", d))
                    code.put(load_slice_util("ToughSlice", d))
                new_ndim += 1
            elif index.is_none:
                # newaxis
                attribs = [('shape', 1), ('strides', 0), ('suboffsets', -1)]
                for attrib, value in attribs:
                    code.putln("%s.%s[%d] = %d;" % (dst, attrib, new_ndim, value))
                new_ndim += 1
                # normal index
                idx = index.result()
                if access == 'direct':
                    indirect = False
                    indirect = True
                    generic = (access == 'full')
                    if new_ndim != 0:
                        return error(index.pos,
                                     "All preceding dimensions must be "
                                     "indexed and not sliced")
                wraparound = int(directives['wraparound'])
                boundscheck = int(directives['boundscheck'])
                d = locals()
                code.put(load_slice_util("SliceIndex", d))
        if not no_suboffset_dim:
def empty_slice(pos):
    none = ExprNodes.NoneNode(pos)
    return ExprNodes.SliceNode(pos, start=none,
                               stop=none, step=none)
def unellipsify(indices, newaxes, ndim):
    result = []
    seen_ellipsis = False
    have_slices = False
    n_indices = len(indices) - len(newaxes)
    for index in indices:
        if isinstance(index, ExprNodes.EllipsisNode):
            have_slices = True
            full_slice = empty_slice(index.pos)
            if seen_ellipsis:
                nslices = ndim - n_indices + 1
                result.extend([full_slice] * nslices)
                seen_ellipsis = True
            have_slices = (have_slices or
                           isinstance(index, ExprNodes.SliceNode) or
    result_length = len(result) - len(newaxes)
    if result_length < ndim:
        have_slices = True
        nslices = ndim - result_length
        result.extend([empty_slice(indices[-1].pos)] * nslices)
    return have_slices, result
def get_memoryview_flag(access, packing):
    if access == 'full' and packing in ('strided', 'follow'):
        return 'generic'
    elif access == 'full' and packing == 'contig':
        return 'generic_contiguous'
    elif access == 'ptr' and packing in ('strided', 'follow'):
        return 'indirect'
    elif access == 'ptr' and packing == 'contig':
        return 'indirect_contiguous'
    elif access == 'direct' and packing in ('strided', 'follow'):
        return 'strided'
        assert (access, packing) == ('direct', 'contig'), (access, packing)
        return 'contiguous'
def get_is_contig_func_name(c_or_f, ndim):
    return "__pyx_memviewslice_is_%s_contig%d" % (c_or_f, ndim)
def get_is_contig_utility(c_contig, ndim):
    C = dict(context, ndim=ndim)
    if c_contig:
        utility = load_memview_c_utility("MemviewSliceIsCContig", C,
        utility = load_memview_c_utility("MemviewSliceIsFContig", C,
    return utility
def copy_src_to_dst_cname():
    return "__pyx_memoryview_copy_contents"
def verify_direct_dimensions(node):
    for access, packing in node.type.axes:
        if access != 'direct':
            error(self.pos, "All dimensions must be direct")
def copy_broadcast_memview_src_to_dst(src, dst, code):
    Copy the contents of slice src to slice dst. Does not support indirect
            "%s(%s, %s, %d, %d, %d)" % (copy_src_to_dst_cname(),
                                        src.result(), dst.result(),
                                        src.type.ndim, dst.type.ndim,
def get_1d_fill_scalar_func(type, code):
    dtype = type.dtype
    type_decl = dtype.declaration_code("")
    dtype_name = mangle_dtype_name(dtype)
    context = dict(dtype_name=dtype_name, type_decl=type_decl)
    utility = load_memview_c_utility("FillStrided1DScalar", context)
    return '__pyx_fill_slice_%s' % dtype_name
def assign_scalar(dst, scalar, code):
    Assign a scalar to a slice. dst must be a temp, scalar will be assigned
    to a correct type and not just something assignable.
    dtype = dst.type.dtype
    type_decl = dtype.declaration_code("")
    slice_decl = dst.type.declaration_code("")
    code.putln("%s __pyx_temp_scalar = %s;" % (type_decl, scalar.result()))
    if dst.result_in_temp() or (dst.base.is_name and
                                isinstance(dst.index, ExprNodes.EllipsisNode)):
        dst_temp = dst.result()
        code.putln("%s __pyx_temp_slice = %s;" % (slice_decl, dst.result()))
        dst_temp = "__pyx_temp_slice"
    # with slice_iter(dst.type, dst_temp, dst.type.ndim, code) as p:
    slice_iter_obj = slice_iter(dst.type, dst_temp, dst.type.ndim, code)
    p = slice_iter_obj.start_loops()
    if dtype.is_pyobject:
        code.putln("Py_DECREF(*(PyObject **) %s);" % p)
    code.putln("*((%s *) %s) = __pyx_temp_scalar;" % (type_decl, p))
    if dtype.is_pyobject:
def slice_iter(slice_type, slice_temp, ndim, code):
    if slice_type.is_c_contig or slice_type.is_f_contig:
        return ContigSliceIter(slice_type, slice_temp, ndim, code)
        return StridedSliceIter(slice_type, slice_temp, ndim, code)
class SliceIter(object):
    def __init__(self, slice_type, slice_temp, ndim, code):
        self.slice_type = slice_type
        self.slice_temp = slice_temp
        self.code = code
        self.ndim = ndim
class ContigSliceIter(SliceIter):
    def start_loops(self):
        code = self.code
        type_decl = self.slice_type.dtype.declaration_code("")
        total_size = ' * '.join("%s.shape[%d]" % (self.slice_temp, i)
                                    for i in range(self.ndim))
        code.putln("Py_ssize_t __pyx_temp_extent = %s;" % total_size)
        code.putln("Py_ssize_t __pyx_temp_idx;")
        code.putln("%s *__pyx_temp_pointer = (%s *);" % (
                            type_decl, type_decl, self.slice_temp))
        code.putln("for (__pyx_temp_idx = 0; "
                        "__pyx_temp_idx < __pyx_temp_extent; "
                        "__pyx_temp_idx++) {")
        return "__pyx_temp_pointer"
    def end_loops(self):
        self.code.putln("__pyx_temp_pointer += 1;")
class StridedSliceIter(SliceIter):
    def start_loops(self):
        code = self.code
        for i in range(self.ndim):
            t = i, self.slice_temp, i
            code.putln("Py_ssize_t __pyx_temp_extent_%d = %s.shape[%d];" % t)
            code.putln("Py_ssize_t __pyx_temp_stride_%d = %s.strides[%d];" % t)
            code.putln("char *__pyx_temp_pointer_%d;" % i)
            code.putln("Py_ssize_t __pyx_temp_idx_%d;" % i)
        code.putln("__pyx_temp_pointer_0 =;" % self.slice_temp)
        for i in range(self.ndim):
            if i > 0:
                code.putln("__pyx_temp_pointer_%d = __pyx_temp_pointer_%d;" % (i, i - 1))
            code.putln("for (__pyx_temp_idx_%d = 0; "
                            "__pyx_temp_idx_%d < __pyx_temp_extent_%d; "
                            "__pyx_temp_idx_%d++) {" % (i, i, i, i))
        return "__pyx_temp_pointer_%d" % (self.ndim - 1)
    def end_loops(self):
        code = self.code
        for i in range(self.ndim - 1, -1, -1):
            code.putln("__pyx_temp_pointer_%d += __pyx_temp_stride_%d;" % (i, i))
def copy_c_or_fortran_cname(memview):
    if memview.is_c_contig:
        c_or_f = 'c'
        c_or_f = 'f'
    return "__pyx_memoryview_copy_slice_%s_%s" % (
            memview.specialization_suffix(), c_or_f)
def get_copy_new_utility(pos, from_memview, to_memview):
    if from_memview.dtype != to_memview.dtype:
        return error(pos, "dtypes must be the same!")
    if len(from_memview.axes) != len(to_memview.axes):
        return error(pos, "number of dimensions must be same")
    if not (to_memview.is_c_contig or to_memview.is_f_contig):
        return error(pos, "to_memview must be c or f contiguous.")
    for (access, packing) in from_memview.axes:
        if access != 'direct':
            return error(
                    pos, "cannot handle 'full' or 'ptr' access at this time.")
    if to_memview.is_c_contig:
        mode = 'c'
        contig_flag = memview_c_contiguous
    elif to_memview.is_f_contig:
        mode = 'fortran'
        contig_flag = memview_f_contiguous
    return load_memview_c_utility(
def get_axes_specs(env, axes):
    get_axes_specs(env, axes) -> list of (access, packing) specs for each axis.
    access is one of 'full', 'ptr' or 'direct'
    packing is one of 'contig', 'strided' or 'follow'
    cythonscope = env.global_scope().context.cython_scope
    viewscope = cythonscope.viewscope
    access_specs = tuple([viewscope.lookup(name)
                    for name in ('full', 'direct', 'ptr')])
    packing_specs = tuple([viewscope.lookup(name)
                    for name in ('contig', 'strided', 'follow')])
    is_f_contig, is_c_contig = False, False
    default_access, default_packing = 'direct', 'strided'
    cf_access, cf_packing = default_access, 'follow'
    axes_specs = []
    # analyse all axes.
    for idx, axis in enumerate(axes):
        if not axis.start.is_none:
            raise CompileError(axis.start.pos,  START_ERR)
        if not axis.stop.is_none:
            raise CompileError(axis.stop.pos, STOP_ERR)
        if axis.step.is_none:
            axes_specs.append((default_access, default_packing))
        elif isinstance(axis.step, IntNode):
            # the packing for the ::1 axis is contiguous,
            # all others are cf_packing.
            if axis.step.compile_time_value(env) != 1:
                raise CompileError(axis.step.pos, STEP_ERR)
            axes_specs.append((cf_access, 'cfcontig'))
        elif isinstance(axis.step, (NameNode, AttributeNode)):
            entry = _get_resolved_spec(env, axis.step)
            if in view_constant_to_access_packing:
                raise CompilerError(axis.step.pos, INVALID_ERR)
            raise CompileError(axis.step.pos, INVALID_ERR)
    # First, find out if we have a ::1 somewhere
    contig_dim = 0
    is_contig = False
    for idx, (access, packing) in enumerate(axes_specs):
        if packing == 'cfcontig':
            if is_contig:
                raise CompileError(axis.step.pos, BOTH_CF_ERR)
            contig_dim = idx
            axes_specs[idx] = (access, 'contig')
            is_contig = True
    if is_contig:
        # We have a ::1 somewhere, see if we're C or Fortran contiguous
        if contig_dim == len(axes) - 1:
            is_c_contig = True
            is_f_contig = True
            if contig_dim and not axes_specs[contig_dim - 1][0] in ('full', 'ptr'):
                raise CompileError(axes[contig_dim].pos,
                                   "Fortran contiguous specifier must follow an indirect dimension")
        if is_c_contig:
            # Contiguous in the last dimension, find the last indirect dimension
            contig_dim = -1
            for idx, (access, packing) in enumerate(reversed(axes_specs)):
                if access in ('ptr', 'full'):
                    contig_dim = len(axes) - idx - 1
        # Replace 'strided' with 'follow' for any dimension following the last
        # indirect dimension, the first dimension or the dimension following
        # the ::1.
        #               int[::indirect, ::1, :, :]
        #                                    ^  ^
        #               int[::indirect, :, :, ::1]
        #                               ^  ^
        start = contig_dim + 1
        stop = len(axes) - is_c_contig
        for idx, (access, packing) in enumerate(axes_specs[start:stop]):
            idx = contig_dim + 1 + idx
            if access != 'direct':
                raise CompileError(axes[idx].pos,
                                   "Indirect dimension may not follow "
                                   "Fortran contiguous dimension")
            if packing == 'contig':
                raise CompileError(axes[idx].pos,
                                   "Dimension may not be contiguous")
            axes_specs[idx] = (access, cf_packing)
        if is_c_contig:
            # For C contiguity, we need to fix the 'contig' dimension
            # after the loop
            a, p = axes_specs[-1]
            axes_specs[-1] = a, 'contig'
    validate_axes_specs([axis.start.pos for axis in axes],
    return axes_specs
def validate_axes(pos, axes):
    if len(axes) >= Options.buffer_max_dims:
        error(pos, "More dimensions than the maximum number"
                   " of buffer dimensions were used.")
        return False
    return True
def is_cf_contig(specs):
    is_c_contig = is_f_contig = False
    if len(specs) == 1 and specs == [('direct', 'contig')]:
        is_c_contig = True
    elif (specs[-1] == ('direct','contig') and
          all(axis == ('direct','follow') for axis in specs[:-1])):
        # c_contiguous: 'follow', 'follow', ..., 'follow', 'contig'
        is_c_contig = True
    elif (len(specs) > 1 and
        specs[0] == ('direct','contig') and
        all(axis == ('direct','follow') for axis in specs[1:])):
        # f_contiguous: 'contig', 'follow', 'follow', ..., 'follow'
        is_f_contig = True
    return is_c_contig, is_f_contig
def get_mode(specs):
    is_c_contig, is_f_contig = is_cf_contig(specs)
    if is_c_contig:
        return 'c'
    elif is_f_contig:
        return 'fortran'
    for access, packing in specs:
        if access in ('ptr', 'full'):
            return 'full'
    return 'strided'
view_constant_to_access_packing = {
    'generic':              ('full',   'strided'),
    'strided':              ('direct', 'strided'),
    'indirect':             ('ptr',    'strided'),
    'generic_contiguous':   ('full',   'contig'),
    'contiguous':           ('direct', 'contig'),
    'indirect_contiguous':  ('ptr',    'contig'),
def validate_axes_specs(positions, specs, is_c_contig, is_f_contig):
    packing_specs = ('contig', 'strided', 'follow')
    access_specs = ('direct', 'ptr', 'full')
    # is_c_contig, is_f_contig = is_cf_contig(specs)
    has_contig = has_follow = has_strided = has_generic_contig = False
    last_indirect_dimension = -1
    for idx, (access, packing) in enumerate(specs):
        if access == 'ptr':
            last_indirect_dimension = idx
    for idx, pos, (access, packing) in zip(xrange(len(specs)), positions, specs):
        if not (access in access_specs and
                packing in packing_specs):
            raise CompileError(pos, "Invalid axes specification.")
        if packing == 'strided':
            has_strided = True
        elif packing == 'contig':
            if has_contig:
                raise CompileError(pos, "Only one direct contiguous "
                                        "axis may be specified.")
            valid_contig_dims = last_indirect_dimension + 1, len(specs) - 1
            if idx not in valid_contig_dims and access != 'ptr':
                if last_indirect_dimension + 1 != len(specs) - 1:
                    dims = "dimensions %d and %d" % valid_contig_dims
                    dims = "dimension %d" % valid_contig_dims[0]
                raise CompileError(pos, "Only %s may be contiguous and direct" % dims)
            has_contig = access != 'ptr'
        elif packing == 'follow':
            if has_strided:
                raise CompileError(pos, "A memoryview cannot have both follow and strided axis specifiers.")
            if not (is_c_contig or is_f_contig):
                raise CompileError(pos, "Invalid use of the follow specifier.")
        if access in ('ptr', 'full'):
            has_strided = False
def _get_resolved_spec(env, spec):
    # spec must be a NameNode or an AttributeNode
    if isinstance(spec, NameNode):
        return _resolve_NameNode(env, spec)
    elif isinstance(spec, AttributeNode):
        return _resolve_AttributeNode(env, spec)
        raise CompileError(spec.pos, INVALID_ERR)
def _resolve_NameNode(env, node):
        resolved_name = env.lookup(
    except AttributeError:
        raise CompileError(node.pos, INVALID_ERR)
    viewscope = env.global_scope().context.cython_scope.viewscope
    entry = viewscope.lookup(resolved_name)
    if entry is None:
        raise CompileError(node.pos, NOT_CIMPORTED_ERR)
    return entry
def _resolve_AttributeNode(env, node):
    path = []
    while isinstance(node, AttributeNode):
        path.insert(0, node.attribute)
        node = node.obj
    if isinstance(node, NameNode):
        raise CompileError(node.pos, EXPR_ERR)
    modnames = path[:-1]
    # must be at least 1 module name, o/w not an AttributeNode.
    assert modnames
    scope = env
    for modname in modnames:
        mod = scope.lookup(modname)
        if not mod or not mod.as_module:
            raise CompileError(
                    node.pos, "undeclared name not builtin: %s" % modname)
        scope = mod.as_module
    entry = scope.lookup(path[-1])
    if not entry:
        raise CompileError(node.pos, "No such attribute '%s'" % path[-1])
    return entry
### Utility loading
def load_memview_cy_utility(util_code_name, context=None, **kwargs):
    return CythonUtilityCode.load(util_code_name, "MemoryView.pyx",
                                  context=context, **kwargs)
def load_memview_c_utility(util_code_name, context=None, **kwargs):
    if context is None:
        return UtilityCode.load(util_code_name, "MemoryView_C.c", **kwargs)
        return TempitaUtilityCode.load(util_code_name, "MemoryView_C.c",
                                       context=context, **kwargs)
def use_cython_array_utility_code(env):
    cython_scope = env.global_scope().context.cython_scope
    cython_scope.viewscope.lookup('array_cwrapper').used = True
context = {
    'memview_struct_name': memview_objstruct_cname,
    'max_dims': Options.buffer_max_dims,
    'memviewslice_name': memviewslice_cname,
    'memslice_init': memslice_entry_init,
memviewslice_declare_code = load_memview_c_utility(
atomic_utility = load_memview_c_utility("Atomics", context,
memviewslice_init_code = load_memview_c_utility(
    context=dict(context, BUF_MAX_NDIMS=Options.buffer_max_dims),
memviewslice_index_helpers = load_memview_c_utility("MemviewSliceIndex")
typeinfo_to_format_code = load_memview_cy_utility(
        "BufferFormatFromTypeInfo", requires=[Buffer._typeinfo_to_format_code])
is_contig_utility = load_memview_c_utility("MemviewSliceIsContig", context)
overlapping_utility = load_memview_c_utility("OverlappingSlices", context)
copy_contents_new_utility = load_memview_c_utility(
    requires=[], # require cython_array_utility_code
view_utility_code = load_memview_cy_utility(
view_utility_whitelist = ('array', 'memoryview', 'array_cwrapper',
                          'generic', 'strided', 'indirect', 'contiguous',