Base classes for writing management commands (named commands which can
be executed through ``django-admin.py`` or ``manage.py``).
from __future__ import unicode_literals
import os
import sys
from optparse import make_option, OptionParser
import django
from django.core.exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured
from django.core.management.color import color_style
from django.utils.encoding import force_str
from django.utils.six import StringIO
class CommandError(Exception):
    Exception class indicating a problem while executing a management
    If this exception is raised during the execution of a management
    command, it will be caught and turned into a nicely-printed error
    message to the appropriate output stream (i.e., stderr); as a
    result, raising this exception (with a sensible description of the
    error) is the preferred way to indicate that something has gone
    wrong in the execution of a command.
def handle_default_options(options):
    Include any default options that all commands should accept here
    so that ManagementUtility can handle them before searching for
    user commands.
    if options.settings:
        os.environ['DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE'] = options.settings
    if options.pythonpath:
        sys.path.insert(0, options.pythonpath)
class OutputWrapper(object):
    Wrapper around stdout/stderr
    def __init__(self, out, style_func=None, ending='\n'):
        self._out = out
        self.style_func = None
        if hasattr(out, 'isatty') and out.isatty():
            self.style_func = style_func
        self.ending = ending
    def __getattr__(self, name):
        return getattr(self._out, name)
    def write(self, msg, style_func=None, ending=None):
        ending = self.ending if ending is None else ending
        if ending and not msg.endswith(ending):
            msg += ending
        style_func = [f for f in (style_func, self.style_func, lambda x:x)
                      if f is not None][0]
class BaseCommand(object):
    The base class from which all management commands ultimately
    Use this class if you want access to all of the mechanisms which
    parse the command-line arguments and work out what code to call in
    response; if you don't need to change any of that behavior,
    consider using one of the subclasses defined in this file.
    If you are interested in overriding/customizing various aspects of
    the command-parsing and -execution behavior, the normal flow works
    as follows:
    1. ``django-admin.py`` or ``manage.py`` loads the command class
       and calls its ``run_from_argv()`` method.
    2. The ``run_from_argv()`` method calls ``create_parser()`` to get
       an ``OptionParser`` for the arguments, parses them, performs
       any environment changes requested by options like
       ``pythonpath``, and then calls the ``execute()`` method,
       passing the parsed arguments.
    3. The ``execute()`` method attempts to carry out the command by
       calling the ``handle()`` method with the parsed arguments; any
       output produced by ``handle()`` will be printed to standard
       output and, if the command is intended to produce a block of
       SQL statements, will be wrapped in ``BEGIN`` and ``COMMIT``.
    4. If ``handle()`` or ``execute()`` raised any exception (e.g.
       ``CommandError``), ``run_from_argv()`` will  instead print an error
       message to ``stderr``.
    Thus, the ``handle()`` method is typically the starting point for
    subclasses; many built-in commands and command types either place
    all of their logic in ``handle()``, or perform some additional
    parsing work in ``handle()`` and then delegate from it to more
    specialized methods as needed.
    Several attributes affect behavior at various steps along the way:
        A string listing the arguments accepted by the command,
        suitable for use in help messages; e.g., a command which takes
        a list of application names might set this to '<appname
        appname ...>'.
        A boolean indicating whether the command needs to be able to
        import Django settings; if ``True``, ``execute()`` will verify
        that this is possible before proceeding. Default value is
        A short description of the command, which will be printed in
        help messages.
        This is the list of ``optparse`` options which will be fed
        into the command's ``OptionParser`` for parsing arguments.
        A boolean indicating whether the command outputs SQL
        statements; if ``True``, the output will automatically be
        wrapped with ``BEGIN;`` and ``COMMIT;``. Default value is
        A boolean; if ``True``, validation of installed models will be
        performed prior to executing the command. Default value is
        ``True``. To validate an individual application's models
        rather than all applications' models, call
        ``self.validate(app)`` from ``handle()``, where ``app`` is the
        application's Python module.
        A boolean indicating whether the locale set in settings should be
        preserved during the execution of the command instead of being
        forcibly set to 'en-us'.
        Default value is ``False``.
        Make sure you know what you are doing if you decide to change the value
        of this option in your custom command if it creates database content
        that is locale-sensitive and such content shouldn't contain any
        translations (like it happens e.g. with django.contrim.auth
        permissions) as making the locale differ from the de facto default
        'en-us' might cause unintended effects.
        This option can't be False when the can_import_settings option is set
        to False too because attempting to set the locale needs access to
        settings. This condition will generate a CommandError.
    # Metadata about this command.
    option_list = (
        make_option('-v', '--verbosity', action='store', dest='verbosity', default='1',
            type='choice', choices=['0', '1', '2', '3'],
            help='Verbosity level; 0=minimal output, 1=normal output, 2=verbose output, 3=very verbose output'),
            help='The Python path to a settings module, e.g. "myproject.settings.main". If this isn\'t provided, the DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE environment variable will be used.'),
            help='A directory to add to the Python path, e.g. "/home/djangoprojects/myproject".'),
        make_option('--traceback', action='store_true',
            help='Raise on exception'),
    help = ''
    args = ''
    # Configuration shortcuts that alter various logic.
    can_import_settings = True
    requires_model_validation = True
    output_transaction = False  # Whether to wrap the output in a "BEGIN; COMMIT;"
    leave_locale_alone = False
    def __init__(self):
        self.style = color_style()
    def get_version(self):
        Return the Django version, which should be correct for all
        built-in Django commands. User-supplied commands should
        override this method.
        return django.get_version()
    def usage(self, subcommand):
        Return a brief description of how to use this command, by
        default from the attribute ``self.help``.
        usage = '%%prog %s [options] %s' % (subcommand, self.args)
        if self.help:
            return '%s\n\n%s' % (usage, self.help)
            return usage
    def create_parser(self, prog_name, subcommand):
        Create and return the ``OptionParser`` which will be used to
        parse the arguments to this command.
        return OptionParser(prog=prog_name,
    def print_help(self, prog_name, subcommand):
        Print the help message for this command, derived from
        parser = self.create_parser(prog_name, subcommand)
    def run_from_argv(self, argv):
        Set up any environment changes requested (e.g., Python path
        and Django settings), then run this command. If the
        command raises a ``CommandError``, intercept it and print it sensibly
        to stderr. If the ``--traceback`` option is present or the raised
        ``Exception`` is not ``CommandError``, raise it.
        parser = self.create_parser(argv[0], argv[1])
        options, args = parser.parse_args(argv[2:])
            self.execute(*args, **options.__dict__)
        except Exception as e:
            if options.traceback or not isinstance(e, CommandError):
            # self.stderr is not guaranteed to be set here
            stderr = getattr(self, 'stderr', OutputWrapper(sys.stderr, self.style.ERROR))
            stderr.write('%s: %s' % (e.__class__.__name__, e))
    def execute(self, *args, **options):
        Try to execute this command, performing model validation if
        needed (as controlled by the attribute
        ``self.requires_model_validation``, except if force-skipped).
        self.stdout = OutputWrapper(options.get('stdout', sys.stdout))
        self.stderr = OutputWrapper(options.get('stderr', sys.stderr), self.style.ERROR)
        if self.can_import_settings:
            from django.conf import settings
        saved_locale = None
        if not self.leave_locale_alone:
            # Only mess with locales if we can assume we have a working
            # settings file, because django.utils.translation requires settings
            # (The final saying about whether the i18n machinery is active will be
            # found in the value of the USE_I18N setting)
            if not self.can_import_settings:
                raise CommandError("Incompatible values of 'leave_locale_alone' "
                                   "(%s) and 'can_import_settings' (%s) command "
                                   "options." % (self.leave_locale_alone,
            # Switch to US English, because django-admin.py creates database
            # content like permissions, and those shouldn't contain any
            # translations.
            from django.utils import translation
            saved_locale = translation.get_language()
            if self.requires_model_validation and not options.get('skip_validation'):
            output = self.handle(*args, **options)
            if output:
                if self.output_transaction:
                    # This needs to be imported here, because it relies on
                    # settings.
                    from django.db import connections, DEFAULT_DB_ALIAS
                    connection = connections[options.get('database', DEFAULT_DB_ALIAS)]
                    if connection.ops.start_transaction_sql():
                if self.output_transaction:
                    self.stdout.write('\n' + self.style.SQL_KEYWORD("COMMIT;"))
            if saved_locale is not None:
    def validate(self, app=None, display_num_errors=False):
        Validates the given app, raising CommandError for any errors.
        If app is None, then this will validate all installed apps.
        from django.core.management.validation import get_validation_errors
        s = StringIO()
        num_errors = get_validation_errors(s, app)
        if num_errors:
            error_text = s.read()
            raise CommandError("One or more models did not validate:\n%s" % error_text)
        if display_num_errors:
            self.stdout.write("%s error%s found" % (num_errors, '' if num_errors == 1 else 's'))
    def handle(self, *args, **options):
        The actual logic of the command. Subclasses must implement
        this method.
        raise NotImplementedError()
class AppCommand(BaseCommand):
    A management command which takes one or more installed application
    names as arguments, and does something with each of them.
    Rather than implementing ``handle()``, subclasses must implement
    ``handle_app()``, which will be called once for each application.
    args = '<appname appname ...>'
    def handle(self, *app_labels, **options):
        from django.db import models
        if not app_labels:
            raise CommandError('Enter at least one appname.')
            app_list = [models.get_app(app_label) for app_label in app_labels]
        except (ImproperlyConfigured, ImportError) as e:
            raise CommandError("%s. Are you sure your INSTALLED_APPS setting is correct?" % e)
        output = []
        for app in app_list:
            app_output = self.handle_app(app, **options)
            if app_output:
        return '\n'.join(output)
    def handle_app(self, app, **options):
        Perform the command's actions for ``app``, which will be the
        Python module corresponding to an application name given on
        the command line.
        raise NotImplementedError()
class LabelCommand(BaseCommand):
    A management command which takes one or more arbitrary arguments
    (labels) on the command line, and does something with each of
    Rather than implementing ``handle()``, subclasses must implement
    ``handle_label()``, which will be called once for each label.
    If the arguments should be names of installed applications, use
    ``AppCommand`` instead.
    args = '<label label ...>'
    label = 'label'
    def handle(self, *labels, **options):
        if not labels:
            raise CommandError('Enter at least one %s.' % self.label)
        output = []
        for label in labels:
            label_output = self.handle_label(label, **options)
            if label_output:
        return '\n'.join(output)
    def handle_label(self, label, **options):
        Perform the command's actions for ``label``, which will be the
        string as given on the command line.
        raise NotImplementedError()
class NoArgsCommand(BaseCommand):
    A command which takes no arguments on the command line.
    Rather than implementing ``handle()``, subclasses must implement
    ``handle_noargs()``; ``handle()`` itself is overridden to ensure
    no arguments are passed to the command.
    Attempting to pass arguments will raise ``CommandError``.
    args = ''
    def handle(self, *args, **options):
        if args:
            raise CommandError("Command doesn't accept any arguments")
        return self.handle_noargs(**options)
    def handle_noargs(self, **options):
        Perform this command's actions.
        raise NotImplementedError()