Author: Andre Anjos


 Eye-Blink Detector to Counter Spoofing Attacks

This package implements an eye-blink detector using a similar frame-differences
technique as described at the paper `Counter-Measures to Photo
Attacks in Face Recognition: a public database and a baseline`, by Anjos and
Marcel, International Joint Conference on Biometrics, 2011.

If you use this package and/or its results, please cite the following

1. The original paper with the frame-differences and normalization technique
   explained in details::

      author = {Anjos, Andr{\'{e}} and Marcel, S{\'{e}}bastien},
      keywords = {Attack, Counter-Measures, Counter-Spoofing, Disguise, Dishonest Acts, Face Recognition, Face Verification, Forgery, Liveness Detection, Replay, Spoofing, Trick},
      month = oct,
      title = {Counter-Measures to Photo Attacks in Face Recognition: a public database and a baseline},
      booktitle = {International Joint Conference on Biometrics 2011},
      year = {2011},
      url = {}

2. Bob as the core framework used to run the experiments::

      author = {A. Anjos AND L. El Shafey AND R. Wallace AND M. G\"unther AND C. McCool AND S. Marcel},
      title = {Bob: a free signal processing and machine learning toolbox for researchers},
      year = {2012},
      month = oct,
      booktitle = {20th ACM Conference on Multimedia Systems (ACMMM), Nara, Japan},
      publisher = {ACM Press},
      url = {},

3. If you decide to use the REPLAY-ATTACK database, you should also mention the
   following paper, where it is introduced::

      author = {Chingovska, Ivana and Anjos, Andr{\'{e}} and Marcel, S{\'{e}}bastien},
      keywords = {Attack, Counter-Measures, Counter-Spoofing, Face Recognition, Liveness Detection, Replay, Spoofing},
      month = sep,
      title = {On the Effectiveness of Local Binary Patterns in Face Anti-spoofing},
      booktitle = {IEEE Biometrics Special Interest Group},
      year = {2012},
      url = {},

If you wish to report problems or improvements concerning this code, please
contact the authors of the above mentioned papers.

Raw data

This method was originally conceived to work with the `the PRINT-ATTACK
database <>`_, but has since evolved to
work with the whole of the `the REPLAY-ATTACK database
<>`_, which is a super-set of the
PRINT-ATTACK database. You are allowed to select protocols in each of the
applications described in this manual.

The data used in these experiments is publicly available and should be
downloaded and installed **prior** to try using the programs described in this


Annotations for this work were generated with the free-software package called
`flandmark <>`_. Please cite that
work as well if you use the results of this package on your own publication.


.. note:: 

  If you are reading this page through our GitHub portal and not through PyPI,
  note **the development tip of the package may not be stable** or become
  unstable in a matter of moments.

  Go to `
  <>`_ to download the latest
  stable version of this package.

There are 2 options you can follow to get this package installed and
operational on your computer: you can use automatic installers like `pip
<>`_ (or `easy_install
<>`_) or manually download, unpack and
use `zc.buildout <